Polyplexes assembled from self-peptides and regulatory nucleic acids blunt toll-like receptor signaling to combat autoimmunity
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AbstractAutoimmune diseases occur when the immune system incorrectly recognizes self-molecules as foreign; in the case of multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin is attacked. Intriguingly, new studies reveal toll-like receptors (TLRs), pathways usually involved in generating immune responses against pathogens, play a significant role in driving autoimmune disease in both humans and animal models. We reasoned polyplexes formed from myelin self-antigen and regulatory TLR antagonists might limit TLR signaling during differentiation of myelin-specific T cells, inducing tolerance by biasing T cells away from inflammatory phenotypes. Complexes were formed by modifying myelin peptide with cationic amino acids to create peptides able to condense the anionic nucleic-acid based TLR antagonist. These immunological polyplexes eliminate synthetic polymers commonly used to condense polyplexes and do not rely on gene expression; however, the complexes mimic key features of traditional polyplexes such as tunable loading and co-delivery. Using these materials and classic polyplex analysis techniques, we demonstrate condensation of both immune signals, protection from enzymatic degradation, and tunable physicochemical properties. We show polyplexes reduce TLR signaling, and in primary dendritic cell and T cell co-culture, reduce myelin-driven inflammation. During mouse models of MS, these tolerogenic polyplexes improve the progression, severity, and incidence of disease. Copyright 2016 The Authors
SponsorsThis work was supported in part by the National Multiple Sclerosis Society Award # RG-1501-02968 and # PP2103, NSF CAREER Award # 1351688, and the University of Maryland Venture Fund. K.LH. is a SMART Graduate Fellow funded by ASD/R&E , Defense-Wide/ PE0601120D8Z National Defense Education Program (NDEP)/BA-1, Basic Research.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85002836321&doi=10.1016%2fj.biomaterials.2016.11.052&partnerID=40&md5=a8790d2c7ce9bdd9ff583dc60bf2a5a0; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/11128
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