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dc.contributor.authorWilliams, E.
dc.contributor.authorPlace, A.
dc.contributor.authorBachvaroff, T.
dc.date.accessioned2019-10-08T19:43:51Z
dc.date.available2019-10-08T19:43:51Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85019620164&doi=10.3390%2fmd15050125&partnerID=40&md5=e95998c990ff0c2dd01680d5ca3d0ce3
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/11101
dc.description.abstractAlthough dinoflagellates are a potential source of pharmaceuticals and natural products, the mechanisms for regulating and producing these compounds are largely unknown because of extensive post-transcriptional control of gene expression. One well-documented mechanism for controlling gene expression during translation is codon bias, whereby specific codons slow or even terminate protein synthesis. Approximately 10,000 annotatable genes from fifteen "core" dinoflagellate transcriptomes along a range of overall guanine and cytosine (GC) content were used for codonW analysis to determine the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and the GC content at each codon position. GC bias in the analyzed dataset and at the third codon position varied from 51% and 54% to 66% and 88%, respectively. Codons poor in GC were observed to be universally absent, but bias was most pronounced for codons ending in uracil followed by adenine (UA). GC bias at the third codon position was able to explain low abundance codons as well as the low effective number of codons. Thus, we propose that a bias towards codons rich in GC bases is a universal feature of core dinoflagellates, possibly relating to their unique chromosome structure, and not likely a major mechanism for controlling gene expression. Copyright 2017 by the authors.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was funded by a grant from Oceans and Human Health NIH R01ES021949-01/NSF OCE1313888 to Allen Place and Rosemary Jagus. The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Deaundrae Howard, an undergraduate research intern from Morgan State University.en_US
dc.description.urihttps://doi.org/10.3390/md15050125en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherMDPI AGen_US
dc.relation.ispartofMarine Drugs
dc.subjectCodon biasen_US
dc.subjectDinoflagellateen_US
dc.subjectGene expressionen_US
dc.subjectToxinen_US
dc.titleTranscriptome analysis of core dinoflagellates reveals a universal bias towards "GC" rich codonsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/md15050125
dc.identifier.pmid28448468


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