Mixed signals: Co-stimulation in invariant natural killer T cell-mediated cancer immunotherapy
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
PublisherFrontiers Media S.A.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractInvariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an integral component of the immune system and play an important role in antitumor immunity. Upon activation, iNKT cells can directly kill malignant cells as well as rapidly produce cytokines that stimulate other immune cells, making them a front line defense against tumorigenesis. Unfortunately, iNKT cell number and activity are reduced in multiple cancer types. This anergy is often associated with upregulation of co-inhibitory markers such as programmed death-1. Similar to conventional T cells, iNKT cells are influenced by the conditions of their activation. Conventional T cells receive signals through the following three types of receptors: (1) T cell receptor (TCR), (2) co-stimulation molecules, and (3) cytokine receptors. Unlike conventional T cells, which recognize peptide antigen presented by MHC class I or II, the TCRs of iNKT cells recognize lipid antigen in the context of the antigen presentation molecule CD1d (Signal 1). Co-stimulatory molecules can positively and negatively influence iNKT cell activation and function and skew the immune response (Signal 2). This study will review the background of iNKT cells and their co-stimulatory requirements for general function and in antitumor immunity. We will explore the impact of monoclonal antibody administration for both blocking inhibitory pathways and engaging stimulatory pathways on iNKT cell-mediated antitumor immunity. This review will highlight the incorporation of co-stimulatory molecules in antitumor dendritic cell vaccine strategies. The use of co-stimulatory intracellular signaling domains in chimeric antigen receptor-iNKT therapy will be assessed. Finally, we will explore the influence of innate-like receptors and modification of immunosuppressive cytokines (Signal 3) on cancer immunotherapy. Copyright 2017 Shissler, Lee and Webb.
SponsorsThis research was supported by grant R21CA199544 from the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health to TW.
Chimeric antigen receptor
Invariant natural killer T
Natural killer T
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85032723089&doi=10.3389%2ffimmu.2017.01447&partnerID=40&md5=245c425b7ab92084711d1e9ba766ec42; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/11093