JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
PublisherBlackwell Publishing Ltd
MetadataShow full item record
Keyworddonors and donation
organ procurement and allocation
organ procurement organization
organ transplantation in general
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85054501236&doi=10.1111%2fajt.15113&partnerID=40&md5=1ee54a47a47b684a2bf93737cf4f5107; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/10781
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An initial investigation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and real-time organ status measurement for transporting human organsScalea, J.R.; Restaino, S.; Scassero, M. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018)Organ transportation has yet to be substantially innovated. If organs could be moved by drone, instead of ill-timed commercial aircraft or expensive charter flights, lifesaving organs could be transplanted more quickly. A modified, six-rotor UAS was used to model situations relevant to organ transportation. To monitor the organ, we developed novel technologies that provided the real-time organ status using a wireless biosensor combined with an organ global positioning system. Fourteen drone organ missions were performed. Temperatures remained stable and low (2.5 °C). Pressure changes (0.37-0.86 kPa) correlated with increased altitude. Drone travel was associated with less vibration (<0.5 G) than was observed with fixed-wing flight (>2.0 G). Peak velocity was 67.6 km/h (42 m/h). Biopsies of the kidney taken prior to and after organ shipment revealed no damage resulting from drone travel. The longest flight was 3.0 miles, modeling an organ flight between two inner city hospitals. Organ transportation may be an ideal use-case for drones. With the development of faster, larger drones, long-distance drone organ shipment may result in substantially reduced cold ischemia times, subsequently improved organ quality, and thousands of lives saved. Copyright 2013 IEEE.
Workplace Disruption following Psychological Trauma: Influence of Incident Severity Level on Organizations' Post-Incident Response Planning and ExecutionDeFraia, Gary S. (NIOC Health Organization, 2016-04)Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents), which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Assisting employers in their response is a growing practice area for occupational medicine, occupational social work, industrial psychology and other occupational health professions. Traumatic workplace events vary greatly in their level of organizational disruption. Objective: To explore whether extent of workplace disruption influences organizations' decisions for post-incident response planning and plan execution. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring extent of workplace disruption associated with organizational decisions regarding post-incident response. Results: The more severe and disruptive the incident, the more likely organizations planned for and followed through to deliver on-site interventions. Following more severe incidents, organizations were also more likely to deliver group sessions and to complete follow-up consultations to ensure ongoing worker recovery. Conclusion: Increasing occupational health practitioners' knowledge of varying levels of organizational disruption and familiarity with a range of organizational response strategies improves incident assessment, consultation and planning, and ensures interventions delivered are consistent with the level of assistance needed on both worker and organizational levels.
Identification of the Prostaglandin E2 Receptors Mediating the Perinatal Organization of Male Sexual Behavior and Neuroanatomical CorrelatesWright, Christopher; McCarthy, Margaret M., 1958- (2009)The capability for an organism to reproduce not only depends on the differentiation of the reproductive organs during development but also organization of the bipotential neuroarchitecture controlling sexual behavior during a sensitive perinatal window. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediates the perinatal cellular processes organizing adult male rat sexual behavior and initiates changes to the neuroanatomy of the preoptic area (POA), a region critical for the control of this behavior. PGE2 is up-regulated in response to estradiol which is aromatized from testicular androgens and initiates a two-fold increase in the density of dendritic spines on POA neurons. PGE2 signaling is propagated through four G-protein coupled receptors, called EP1-4. In order to discover the mechanism by which PGE2 elicits its permanent effects, we will first determine which of the four receptors initiates the signal transduction cascade resulting in masculinization. Real-time PCR analysis was used to assess the developmental expression of EP1-4 mRNA in the POA. All four receptors are expressed neonatally. To identify which receptors suffice in mediating the effects of PGE2, we utilized specific agonists for each of the EP receptors and quantified: 1) measures of adult male sexual behavior, 2) levels of neonatal and adult POA spinophilin as a surrogate marker for dendritic spine formation. To identify which EP receptors are necessary for the masculinization behavior, we used a combination of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against EP receptors followed by PGE2 administration on postnatal days 0 and 1. In female rats, neonatal treatment with antisense oligonucleotides against EP2 or EP4 but not EP1 or EP3, completely prevented the expression of adult behavior organized by PGE2 exposure. The effects of each of the EP1-4 agonists were equivalent to PGE2 treatment, suggesting that any EP receptor neonatally suffices in masculinizing adult sex behavior. Giving each agonist neonatally increased adult POA spinophilin levels. Since EP2 and EP4 are both necessary and couple to Gs proteins, we determined that PKA signaling is necessary for the organizational effects of PGE2. The body of evidence suggests that EP2 and EP4 are necessary and sufficient for PGE2-induced masculinization of sex behavior whereas EP1 and EP3 provide redundant roles.