Control of glucose metabolism is important in tenogenic differentiation of progenitors derived from human injured tendons
PublisherPublic Library of Science
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AbstractGlucose metabolism is altered in injured and healing tendons. However, the mechanism by which the glucose metabolism is involved in the pathogenesis of tendon healing process remains unclear. Injured tendons do not completely heal, and often induce fibrous scar and chondroid lesion. Because previous studies have shown that tendon progenitors play roles in tendon repair, we asked whether connective tissue progenitors appearing in injured tendons alter glucose metabolism during tendon healing process. We isolated connective tissue progenitors from the human injured tendons, obtained at the time of primary surgical repair of rupture or laceration. We first characterized the change in glucose metabolism by metabolomics analysis using [1,2- 13 C]-glucose using the cells isolated from the lacerated flexor tendon. The flux of glucose to the glycolysis pathway was increased in the connective tissue progenitors when they proceeded toward tenogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The influx of glucose to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and biosynthesis of amino acids from the intermediates of the TCA cycle were strongly stimulated toward chondrogenic differentiation. When we treated the cultures with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), an inhibitor of glycolysis, 2DG inhibited chondrogenesis as characterized by accumulation of mucopolysaccharides and expression of AGGRECAN. Interestingly, 2DG strongly stimulated expression of tenogenic transcription factor genes, SCLERAXIS and MOHAWK under both chondrogenic and tenogenic differentiation conditions. The findings suggest that control of glucose metabolism is beneficial for tenogenic differentiation of connective tissue progenitors. Copyright 2019 Izumi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Keywordconnective tissue progenitors
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85063263115&doi=10.1371%2fjournal.pone.0213912&partnerID=40&md5=a30b80f3fe0d7b53bcab39165afc18f8; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/10584
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