JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
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AbstractCoronary venous anatomy can be divided into the greater cardiac venous system and the lesser cardiac venous system. With protocol optimization, including appropriate contrast bolus timing, coronary veins can be depicted with excellent detail on CT. Knowledge of variant coronary venous anatomy can sometimes play a role in pre-procedural planning. Analysis of the coronary venous anatomy on CT can detect coronary venous anomalies that cause right to left shunts with risk of stroke, left to right shunts, and arrhythmias.
SponsorsThis work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute , National Institutes of Health, USA .
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85070930998&doi=10.1016%2fj.jcct.2019.08.006&partnerID=40&md5=c84fc6a6c0d7764bb0de544078db3b70; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/10515
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Pathology of human coronary and carotid artery atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in diabetes mellitusYahagi, K.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Lutter, C. (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2017)The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus. Moreover, there is a higher incidence of healed plaque ruptures and positive remodeling in hearts from subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus, suggesting a more active atherogenic process. Lesion calcification in the coronary, carotid, and other arterial beds is also more extensive. Although the role of coronary artery calcification in identifying cardiovascular disease and predicting its outcome is undeniable, our understanding of how key hormonal and physiological alterations associated with diabetes mellitus such as insulin resistance and hyperglycemia influence the process of vascular calcification continues to grow. Important drivers of atherosclerotic calcification in diabetes mellitus include oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, alterations in mineral metabolism, increased inflammatory cytokine production, and release of osteoprogenitor cells from the marrow into the circulation. Our review will focus on the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus- and type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated vascular disease with particular focus on coronary and carotid atherosclerotic calcification. Copyright 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Coronary Artery Calcification and its Progression: What Does it Really Mean?Mori, H.; Torii, S.; Kutyna, M. (Elsevier Inc., 2018)Coronary artery calcification is concomitant with the development of advanced atherosclerosis. Coronary artery calcification pathologically begins as microcalcifications (0.5 to 15.0 μm) and grows into larger calcium fragments, which eventually result in sheet-like deposits (>3 mm). This evolution is observed to occur concurrently with the progression of plaque. These fragments and sheets of calcification can be easily identified by radiography as well as by computed tomography and intravascular imaging. Many imaging modalities have proposed spotty calcification to be a predictor of unstable plaque and have suggested more extensive calcification to be associated with stable plaques and perhaps the use of statin therapy. We will review the pathology of coronary calcification in humans with a focus on risk factors, relationship with plaque progression, correlation with plaque (in)stability, and effect of pharmacologic interventions. Copyright 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation
Multisite Investigation of Outcomes With Implementation of CYP2C19 Genotype-Guided Antiplatelet Therapy After Percutaneous Coronary InterventionCavallari, L.H.; Lee, C.R.; Beitelshees, A.L. (Elsevier Inc., 2018)Objectives This multicenter pragmatic investigation assessed outcomes following clinical implementation of CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Background CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles impair clopidogrel effectiveness after PCI. Methods After clinical genotyping, each institution recommended alternative antiplatelet therapy (prasugrel, ticagrelor) in PCI patients with a loss-of-function allele. Major adverse cardiovascular events (defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, or death) within 12 months of PCI were compared between patients with a loss-of-function allele prescribed clopidogrel versus alternative therapy. Risk was also compared between patients without a loss-of-function allele and loss-of-function allele carriers prescribed alternative therapy. Cox regression was performed, adjusting for group differences with inverse probability of treatment weights. Results Among 1,815 patients, 572 (31.5%) had a loss-of-function allele. The risk for major adverse cardiovascular events was significantly higher in patients with a loss-of-function allele prescribed clopidogrel versus alternative therapy (23.4 vs. 8.7 per 100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio: 2.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 4.32; p = 0.013). Similar results were observed among 1,210 patients with acute coronary syndromes at the time of PCI (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.35 to 6.09; p = 0.013). There was no difference in major adverse cardiovascular events between patients without a loss-of-function allele and loss-of-function allele carriers prescribed alternative therapy (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 0.69 to 1.88; p = 0.60). Conclusions These data from real-world observations demonstrate a higher risk for cardiovascular events in patients with a CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele if clopidogrel versus alternative therapy is prescribed. A future randomized study of genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy may be of value. Copyright 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation