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dc.contributor.authorCasjens, S.R.
dc.contributor.authorGilcrease, E.B.
dc.contributor.authorVujadinovic, M.
dc.date.accessioned2019-07-15T16:17:02Z
dc.date.available2019-07-15T16:17:02Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85014421152&doi=10.1186%2fs12864-017-3553-5&partnerID=40&md5=1bab875d94bb2c04f365af4ad0ca4e2a
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/10068
dc.description.abstractBackground: Bacteria from the genus Borrelia are known to harbor numerous linear and circular plasmids. We report here a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 236 plasmids present in fourteen independent isolates of the Lyme disease agent B. burgdorferi. Results: We have sequenced the genomes of 14 B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates that carry a total of 236 plasmids. These individual isolates carry between seven and 23 plasmids. Their chromosomes, the cp26 and cp32 circular plasmids, as well as the lp54 linear plasmid, are quite evolutionarily stable; however, the remaining plasmids have undergone numerous non-homologous and often duplicative recombination events. We identify 32 different putative plasmid compatibility types among the 236 plasmids, of which 15 are (usually) circular and 17 are linear. Because of past rearrangements, any given gene, even though it might be universally present in these isolates, is often found on different linear plasmid compatibility types in different isolates. For example, the arp gene and the vls cassette region are present on plasmids of four and five different compatibility types, respectively, in different isolates. A majority of the plasmid types have more than one organizationally different subtype, and the number of such variants ranges from one to eight among the 18 linear plasmid types. In spite of this substantial organizational diversity, the plasmids are not so variable that every isolate has a novel version of every plasmid (i.e., there appears to be a limited number of extant plasmid subtypes). Conclusions: Although there have been many past recombination events, both homologous and nonhomologous, among the plasmids, particular organizational variants of these plasmids correlate with particular chromosomal genotypes, suggesting that there has not been rapid horizontal transfer of whole linear plasmids among B. burgdorferi lineages. We argue that plasmid rearrangements are essentially non-revertable and are present at a frequency of only about 0.65% that of single nucleotide changes, making rearrangement-derived novel junctions (mosaic boundaries) ideal phylogenetic markers in the study of B. burgdorferi population structure and plasmid evolution and exchange. Copyright 2017 The Author(s).en_US
dc.description.urihttps://www.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-017-3553-5en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltd.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofBMC Genomics
dc.subjectB. burgdorferien_US
dc.subjectGenome rearrangementen_US
dc.subjectLinear plasmiden_US
dc.subjectPlasmiden_US
dc.titlePlasmid diversity and phylogenetic consistency in the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferien_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s12864-017-3553-5
dc.identifier.pmid28201991


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